What does it mean to emphasize the spelling in the sentence. Spelling in words

What does it mean to emphasize the spelling in the sentence. Spelling in the words spelling can be in different parts of the word: prefix, root, suffix, ending. To check the spelling

What does it mean to emphasize the spelling in the sentence. Spelling in words

Spelling can be in different parts of the word: prefix, root, suffix, ending. To verify the spelling of dubious consonants, you need to change the word or choose a single -rooted one for it, in which vowel follows after them. Often, in the learning process, the teacher asks to highlight the spelling available in a particular word.

You need to emphasize the letter B, highlight the root in the word. So you highlight the spelling. It is called writing deaf consonants in the root of the word. Change the form of the word and select one -root. Oak – Dugs see that now after the letter B is a vowel consonant, and it is in a strong position. Highlight it, emphasize the letter C and the subsequent consonant P, since the spelling depends on whether the sonorous or deaf consonant is after the prefix.

It remains to admit that the author of these recommendations could not clearly determine what a spelling is. The topical theme of the last decade-the exam-still does not lose relevance, especially for those … Dear parents, as well as all those responsible representatives of the family, in which there is already such a miracle as a first-grader, and who were entrusted with doing homework with him.

And the rules there, in textbooks, were also clear. I know all these of your conclusions, since I heard from you all this hundreds of times in different expressions, but exactly the same in essence! The next generation of parents will come for you. And they will also discover this school world with their child. 3) in each of these 5 days (when the Russian language is in the schedule) to expect deuces (and in the year there are more than 30 academic weeks.

4) have big problems with the GIA (an exam in Russian, which is passed at the end of the ninth grade. He will not learn to see spelling. And what is taught at school? They teach spelling. And this is necessary first of all for you and your child.

Therefore, trust your teacher and make sure that your child in no case forget to highlight spelling in homework. In the first grade, Russian lessons have been going a little more than a couple of months.

Of course, they will be fixed hundreds of times in the second grade. But in the second grade, new spelling will appear. And so with each next class. Particularly advanced parents – “users” in Russian can read an appeal to teachers, which explains the methodology of finding spelling.

In all other words, it is necessary to teach children to see and speak spelling. And even such a small dictation is “enough” for working on a chain for at least 31 people in the classroom.At first, it takes even more time to pronounce all spelling to children than to write a dictation.

What is a spelling?

Each class has its own weaknesses. Therefore, the list of detailed pronunciation can be expanded. For the first class, this is an indicator of the softness of the consonant vowel, and the spelling of the words, and the transfer of words, and much more at the discretion of the teacher. A large letter at the beginning of the sentence. Unverifiable unstressed vowels in the root of the words (vocabulary).

The paired consonants in a weak position (dubious consonants) at the end and middle of the word are not held in all first -class programs. Children write down words in the dictation in the first grade, be sure to pronounce them by syllables with lips or whisper. When writing, all spelling are distinguished by a green handle. If you want to achieve one hundred percent literacy, then mini-dictations must be written in the class every day. At least 2 sentences of 3 words in each.

Spelling – This is a spelling in a word corresponding to the spelling rule. Simply put, this is the part of the word in which you can easily make a mistake. Translated from Greek Spelling means Correct letter . Where is the word Orthos translated as right .

a Grammaletter .

An example is a spelling, the basis of which is to distinguish between deaf and sonorous paired consonants, which are rooted in the root. For its correct writing, it is necessary to change the form or choose the right one -root word.

Consider the word oak . Having highlighted its root (i.e. in this case – the whole word). Here you can make a mistake by writing instead of the letter b The letter P . Therefore, the letter b It is in a weak position, which means it is a spelling. By emphasizing this letter, you will highlight the spelling. This case refers to writing deaf consonants in the root of the word.

Changing the form of the word and picking up a single -rooted one, we will see the following:

Now the spelling has begun to correspond to the pronunciation. Spelling in the word Oak trees no.

The spelling can be in various parts of the word, both in the prefix and root, and in the suffix and ending. If you need to highlight the spelling, then also indicate the part of the word in which it is located.

For example, if you came across a spelling related to “alternating unstressed vowels in the root of the word”, highlight the root and emphasize the vowel in the root, which is the spelling.

In the word settled often make an error in the root lodge . Here the spelling is considered to write the letter about . It is necessary to highlight the root, emphasize the letter about one feature and letter g two, because After an alternating unstressed vowel about The consonant letter follows g . On which the spelling of the spelling depends.

It happens that in a word settled They make an error when writing a prefix. You should highlight the prefix, emphasize the letter with And the next consonant P . because.Writing in this case depends on how consonant, located after the prefix, is sonorous or deaf. The letter with you need to emphasize one feature P – Two.

In the same word, the spelling in the prefix should be noted on . To do this, highlight the prefix, emphasizing the letter about .

So it becomes clear that in the word settled Not one spelling should be distinguished, but several at once.

How to identify a spelling?

To be able to write correctly, you need to learn how to detect spelling. First of all, it is worth paying attention:

unstressed vowel in the root, prefix, suffix and ending (it is important to know the composition of the word and understand the principles of word formation well),

vowel, following after hissing and letters C. ,

a soft sign located after hissing at the end of the words,

spelling not In different parts of speech.

Spelling is translated from Greek as “Spelling” or “I write correctly”. This concept consists of Greek words “ortho”, which means “correctly” and “graph”, which means “writing”. Thus, spelling – This is part of linguistics that studies the spelling of words, and the spelling is closely connected with spelling and spelling. Thus, the spelling can be called the spelling of words that corresponds to the spelling rules of the Russian language.

Several types of spelling are distinguished:

  1. Unstressed vowel, the correct spelling of which can be checked using the selection of a single -rooted word. Such a spelling can be not only in the root of the word, but also in the prefix and Sufix. For example, to sing a song, but drinking food – the correct spelling can be checked if you choose such testing words as “singing” and “drink”. Or the word young, where the spelling is the first vowel o. The correctness of writing this spelling can be checked if you select a single -rooted word in which you will clearly hear the “correct” letters – youth, young.
  2. Unverifiable unstressed vowel in the root. This vowel, as well as vowel from the first version of the spelling is in a weak position, i.e. It is not stressed and therefore if you need to write the letter “o” in the word, when pronouncing, we can hear sound “a”. If in the first case the correctness of the spelling can be checked by choosing a single -rooted word, then there is no such word here and you just need to remember how the word should be written. These are words-exclusive-cow, milk, chicken, gypsies, chicks.
  3. The verified consonant. For example, a pillar, oak, mushroom. The last consonant sound “B” in speech is heard as a pair of the sound “P” to it. In order to understand how to write a word with such a spelling correctly, it is necessary to take a word in which a vowel will be after this spelling – pillars, oaks, mushrooms.
  4. Unverified consonant. Destroy-in this case, the spelling is the consonant letter z in the prefix The correct spelling of this consonant cannot be checked by simply choosing a test word, but there is a rule that if the root of the word begins with a voiced consonant, then the prefix “raz-” is written, if with a deaf one – the prefix “ras-”.

In addition, the spelling can be a hyphen, and even a space , i.e. separate spelling of the word – in my opinion and in my opinion. In total, in the Russian language there are no less than 70 (.) types of orthograms. Thus, a spelling is a letter or a place in a word that is written in one way or another not in accordance with common sense, but according to the spelling rules of the Russian language.

It is not at all difficult to designate spellings in a word – for this it is enough just to underline the letter with one or two lines, which is a spelling, and highlight the part of the word in which there is a spelling. So, if you found the spelling alternating unstressed vowels in the root (zor – zar, rovn – equal, mok – poppy, braid – kasa, lie – lag), then you need to highlight the root of the word and emphasize the vowel in it, which is spelling.

If the correct spelling of one spelling depends on the other, then we emphasize the first with one line, and the second with two. For example, located – s is underlined with one line, and p – with two or infamous – the first s is underlined with one line, and the second – with two.

One of the most difficult languages ​​is Russian. Most of his words are not spelled the way they are pronounced. Therefore, not only foreigners who study Russian experience difficulties in spelling, but also people who speak it since childhood. As soon as a child begins to learn to write, he immediately faces the need to learn different spelling rules, that is, spelling. Only with their application is it possible to correctly write in Russian. Therefore, with the concept of what a spelling is, a student meets already in the first grade.

Signs of spelling

In order to write correctly, it is not enough to know what a spelling is, you need to be able to find it in words and apply it correctly. For this, the student must be taught to recognize its signs. After all, spelling is not in all words, but only in those where the sound is in a weak position. This is a place at the end of a word, in a consonant cluster, an unstressed position of a vowel or a vowel after hissing, and some other cases. For example, inabout yes, zub ", "mid astier, yellow or himselfabout years.

Types of orthograms

After the spelling position is found in the word, it is necessary to determine the conditions for choosing the correct spelling. It usually depends on the part of speech, the place of the sound in the word, or the meaning of the word itself. In accordance with this, different types of orthograms are distinguished. For example, the spelling of unstressed vowels in prefixes, endings, after hissing, the spelling of consonants, the continuous and separate spelling of not and neither, and many others. In total, 70 spellings are studied at the school.But even having learned them all by heart, not every child can use them and write competently.

The greatest difficulty is the spelling of vowels in the root of words. It is very difficult to determine by ear that a spelling is present in this place. The words,

which must be remembered, collected in the spelling dictionary. There are a lot of them, and rarely someone knows them all. In addition, new words constantly appear in the Russian language, the spelling of which also needs to be memorized. It is also very difficult to remember the correct writing of terms and words of foreign origin. For example, hockey, coalition, legitimate and many others.

The difficulty in learning the Russian language is also that of most rules there are exceptions. Therefore, it is advisable to teach them all by heart. For example, the spelling of vowels after hissing, H and NN in suffixes or vocabulary words. Parachute, windy or dawn are not amenable.

How to apply spelling when writing

Therefore, even if the student knows what a spelling is, and learned them all, this does not guarantee that he will write competently. The most difficult thing to foreigners studying the Russian language. Indeed, for the correct use of spelling, you need to understand the intricacies of the lexical meaning of words, be able to distinguish morphemes in them, determine the part of the speech to which the word belongs. For example, the choice of vowel in such combinations depends on the meaning of the word: “Singer a song” or “Washing the medicine”. In addition, it is very important

pronounce the word correctly. Often, the choice of the right letter when writing depends on this. For example, after hissing in the suffixes and endings of nouns and adjectives, “O” is written “O” – as it is pronounced: “hook”, “fluff”, “kumachovy”.

Why do most of the students, having graduated from school, make mistakes in words? After all, they know what a spelling is, they can tell the rules, but they can’t apply them. Many simply do not see a place in which you can make a mistake. Indeed, in order to determine the place of spelling in the word, you need to know the rules of the Russian language: to be able to distinguish parts of speech, determine the grammatical and lexical meaning of words and disassemble words in composition. In addition, it is necessary to develop phonetic hearing among schoolchildren so that they can immediately hear in what position the sound is, where the stress falls, and whether there are dividing Kommersant and b in the word.

Spelling – This is the spelling of words corresponding to the rules of spelling or the prevailing linguistic tradition. These are those places in words where schoolchildren most often make mistakes. A large and diverse group called spelling in the root of the word is associated with spelling of vowels and consonants.


Working with the studied spelling in the root , the student does not think about her place among the rest, although root spelling form a harmonious, logically reasonable system. Similar cases require the same verification methods . Mistakes can be avoided by learning correctly highlight in words, suffixes, endings and especially root orthograms, to determine their place among others and to check by applying the rule, or looking into orthographic dictionary .

Important! Before starting the check, it is necessary to establish in which morpheme (part of the word) the letter being checked is located. A common mistake is applying a rule to one morpheme for another, or trying to check, for example, a vowel in a suffix using a vowel at the end of a related word.

Scope of the rule

Root – the common part of related words, but this does not mean that it will be the same in all cases. Alternations, build-ups, dropouts and letters make it difficult to recognize. In Russian, even zero is found (in the word take out ), which is devoid of sound and letter expression, and appears only in other forms of this word.

It is possible to correctly select the desired morpheme only by selecting and comparing cognate words. However, their importance must be taken into account. For example, will the words be related mountain and burn ? At first glance, the morpheme -mountain- it looks the same in them, but one cannot find common in the semantic meaning of these words, which means that there is no relationship between them. The verification methods will also be different.


Root orthograms can be divided into 4 groups:

  • unverifiable,
  • verifiable,
  • alternating,
  • elected.

The ways of choosing the desired letter depend on their belonging to a certain group. How to highlight spelling : indicate the morpheme, underline the letter being checked with one line. This method will help you write words correctly.


This variety includes several spellings. Unchecked can be:

  1. unstressed vowels;
  2. consonants: obscure, paired in voiced-deafness, unpronounceable, doubled.

They are united by the impossibility of doing without a dictionary in case of difficulties.


Checkable spellings at the root of the word, they regulate the choice of letters in the place of a sound in a weak position, the spelling of which is established by the selection of test words or forms, where the vowel or is placed in a strong position and is well heard. How the spelling is checked at the root of the word, examples:

For vowels, the strong position is stressed. To check an unstressed vowel at the root of a word, you need to find a cognate in which it is under, or change the given one so that the dubious letter becomes stressed:

Gabout ra – gabout rka, in gabout ry.

Unclear paired voiced and deaf consonants are clearly audible before vowels, sonorants. Unpronounceables also appear at the end of a word. Here, too, a test word or a change in form will help:

  • dub – dub ok dob s;
  • chest ny – chest b, chest en.
  • spring – spring, spring.

In the latter case, by analogy with the previous one, I would like to insert an unpronounceable consonant, but the check shows that it is not there.

There is another way to verify unstressed vowels, but it is not suitable for all words, but only for certain combinations of letters. In modern, traces of both Old Russian and Church Slavonic are preserved. In the first there was a full closing, that is, each syllable ended on the vowel. The second allowed incomplete combinations – consonants, not disconnected by vowels. Both influenced the formation of the language, and now there are morphemes, which in some words contain the Old Russian version, in others – the corresponding Old Slavonic. With the help of alternating full -mention and incomplete combinations, the spelling is checked in the root of the word: examples of their mutual replacement are given in the table:

Two different options replace each other only in such pairs, so one is checked by the presence in related words of the other. Now, knowing about the existence of the word mLa Dry, mOlo Doy through BUT You can’t write anymore. Incomplete forms are also found instead of the usual modern in the solemn poetic works of past centuries, and their presence indicates modern spelling.

«OE After hissing ”, it also refers to the audits, but it is necessary to select for verification a word with a shock option, but the one -rooted, where it appears in this place E . If such options were found, it is fundamentally written E , if not, then O (She Sweat – we Take it, wabout Roch – related with E No).

Types of spelling in the root


Both vowels and consonants can have options for use, but the main difficulties are related to the choice of the former.

IMPORTANT! Alternations and verified spelling in the root of the words obey different rules, it is equally impossible to check them

What are spelling of roots with alternating vowels and how the verified spelling in the root of the word differs from them. The word with an alternating vowel, outwardly similar to another, differs from it with a meaning. Atworld yat (friends) – verification word world . Atmeasures Yat clothes – select a test word to check the unstressed vowel in the root, in no case, there is alternation.

Alternating vowels are not clarified by setting in a strong position, as checked spelling in the root. For example, words with the root of the lag-set and other cases with alternations require other methods of verification.

The spelling of vowels in the root with alternating consonants depends on one of the four reasons.

Subsequent consonants

Fundamentally -rast-(-rash-) //-Ros- before SCH and combination Art written BUT , and before With Without subsequent T – always O . Exceptions – names of own Rostov and Rostislav common sprout and Rostist written through O and the word industry – through BUT . The list of this type is not included. The reasons will be explained below.

Suffix -a-

From the suffix -a- The choice of vowel depends And : Choose – Selectand Ra Eat, to discard – Prodand Ra to burn, burn outand Ga to despise – Presentand Ra to freeze – deputyand Ra t, unlock – outputand Ra t, cover – dissectand la to wipe – st.and Ra t, deduction – deductionand ta nia, brilliant – bl.and Arta t;

vowel BUT : —COST-//-KAS (touch – toa witha nie)

Combinations THEM , In in place AND I) :

  • owa t – slIma t
  • PonI t – princeIma t
  • ClI STI – prisonIn t
  • beginninga LO – beginningIn t
  • IzmI – seeIn t

Words with the root -LAG-//-LOD- obey both of the named rules. BUT written before G but in the same words there are always suffix -a- (onlodge – sLaga nye), so two ways are suitable for testing them.


In words with alternations:

  • -Gor-//-GAR – (grief – rider),
  • -clon-//-clan- (lean – clash),
  • -kop-//-cap- (dig – pump it out),
  • -molch-//-Mulch- (silent – mind),
  • -Morg-//-Marg- (blink – make up),
  • -poz-//-pasd- (late – PAY),
  • -Por-//-Parkh- (shut off – steam),
  • -st-//-flock- (Stand – to visit),
  • -MEL-//-TVar- (create – creature),
  • -bolk-//-Talk- (pushing – sting),
  • -torop-//-torp- (Hurry – to heat) –

In unclear cases (without stress), the letter is used O .

Signing of vowels in the root -sar-//-Zor- (charge – Zorika) obeys the back law: without stress in it is written BUT .

The exception is the dialect and special words of the Vygar (Zagar), the stackets, the tag, Izgar, to dawn, not obeying the rule.

Stress in words

Shades of value

Symptoms also determine the spelling in the root of the word. Examples of vowel selection on this basis:

-mak-//-wet (dang – get wet): The first option is written in words with the meaning of immersion in the liquid, the second – the ability to pass the liquid, soak it with it.

-do-//-swim-//-Pilaf- (floating – swimming – swimmer): the ability to stay afloat/directed in the stream/combination of both values.

-skak-//-Skok- (jump – jump in): multiple or long -term action/single. The exception is a jump.

-equal-//-ROVN- (equation – to adjust): a semantic connection with the concepts is equal (the same) and even. The team Equal! And the word plain is no exception, as at first glance it seems. Equal! – The requirement not to get up smoothly, but to get up the same way. And the plain is not a flat surface, there are hills and pits on it, but equal in height level of sea.

Alternating consonants do not entail the difficulties of spelling, their presence is taken into account only when the morpheme is highlighted.

Selected vowels

The selected root spelling includes cases in which the choice of the letter depends on its environment in the word.

The chosen ones include vowels after hissing and C, the spelling of which is established by several rules:

  • Zhi-shi , thicket , Chu-sh – combinations in which it is not written S , I , YU , with the exception of the words borrowed from the French language, Julien, parachute, a brochure, foreign language names and surnames like Julie, Cheurlenis, Mkrtchyan, as well as Russians, in which a certain spelling has traditionally entrenched;
  • after C. written And (except for the words of a chicken, gypsies, a tsyts, dull, on tiptoe).

This group also includes a rule according to which And , standing at the beginning of the word, changes to S After the prefixes to the consonant, except above- (and Neresh – withouts Neresh – superand Neresh).

Part 1. Spelling in the root of vowels

Russian language. Spelling: verified unstressed vowels in the root.


The rules governing the spelling of the options considered are not applicable to other morphemes. There are only two exceptions: a way of choice I-s , I am , Yu-u applies to the spelling in any morpheme, and replacement And on the S acts where the basis after the prefix to the consonant began with the prefix from- (IS- ). In other cases, the choice of the letter requires other methods of verification.