The terms that any runner needs to know

Terms every runner needs to know

In this article, we will talk about the main terms and decipher them in the simplest and most accessible language so that you can always refer to it and refresh your knowledge by saving this text to your bookmarks.

Terms every runner needs to know

The terms that any runner needs to know

Of course, there are a lot of running terms – if you list all of them, along with a detailed decoding, then the volume of the text will definitely pull on the Small Running Encyclopedia, and maybe even on the Big. Indeed, there are many terms – knowledge about running is a kind of tree, where there are a large number of branches – highly specialized areas, for example, about human physiology or the chemical composition of polymers that are used to manufacture sneakers. There are branches with data on nutrition, and there is about how to properly train in the offseason. There are branches dedicated to music that is best used during runs, and there are dedicated to the history of marathons.

We decided to dwell on what is called roots – on the basic knowledge from which the tree itself grows. In this article, we will try to list the main terms and decipher them for you as simply as possible, in an accessible language, so that, on the one hand, everything is as clear as possible to you, and on the other hand, so that you always have the opportunity by saving this text to your “bookmarks” ”, refer to it to refresh your knowledge.

Anaerobic Threshold (or TAN – Threshold of Anaerobic Metabolism)

TAN is one of the key parameters from which all training plans are built, the personal significance of which should be known to all runners planning to participate in long-distance competitions.

During sports, any amateur or professional runner begins to intensively produce “lactate” (lactic acid salt). At a low intensity of physical activity, the resulting amount of lactate is successfully processed by the body, which allows you to continue training or participating in the race.

With an increase in the level of physical activity (increase in running speed, for example) and an increase in the level of lactate in the blood, the process of acidification of the blood begins – it begins to play the role of an oxygen deliverer to the muscles to perform work worse and worse, the body finds it more and more difficult to process the increasing amount of lactate.

The anaerobic threshold is the level of exercise intensity at which the concentration of lactate in the blood begins to rise sharply and the amount of lactate produced can no longer be utilized by the runner's body. As a result of exceeding the TAN, the ability to maintain the desired running speed begins to decrease sharply, the pulse grows, lethargy and fatigue pile up, and the desire to run further is lost.

The runner's TAN is determined by several threshold values ​​that are set experimentally during special tests: pulse, speed (km / h) and the rate of increase in lactate concentration ml / minute / kg of the runner's weight.Also, TAN can be calculated as a percentage of the maximum possible volume of oxygen consumption (MOC) – one of the most reliable indicators of a person's physical performance. On average, the anaerobic threshold occurs in the region of 65% of the IPC.

The average concentration of lactate in the blood at rest in humans is 0.5 – 2.2 mmol / 1 liter of blood. On average, TAN starts around 4 mmol/1 liter of blood.

As soon as you reach these values, you reach the TAN, your performance starts to drop sharply.

With the help of special training, it is in the power of every stubborn runner to push back this threshold.

Aerobic Threshold

Threshold, at a certain level of load – the value of the pulse and speed of the runner, when lactate is just starting to accumulate in the blood. On average, the aerobic threshold starts around 2 mmol/1 liter of blood or 55% of the MIC.

If you are an athlete who is actively involved in sports, if you are an amateur who regularly participates in competitions, then we have special discount cards for you that allow you to receive significant discounts on the equipment, shoes or clothes you need

Achilles / Achilles tendon

Achilles = Achilles tendon. Achilles injuries are one of the most common, classic injuries among runners. The place where the Achilles is located is just above the heel, where the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles merge. The source of Achilles injury can be either unhealed, plantar fasciitis – inflammation of the soft tissues of the heel and plantar part of the foot, or direct mechanical injury to the Achilles tendon itself.

The first sign of plantar fasciitis is persistent pain in the heel of the foot, as well as pain in the same place when getting up after sleep. Like any injury, if it is not treated with the help of professional doctors, but rely on “folk” methods and “will pass by itself”, fasciitis can gradually move to the Achilles tendon, which will definitely lead to a serious problem with the complete exclusion of running as physical activity.

Injury prevention is always better than cure. Prevention of any injury, any part of the foot includes a properly drawn up training plan, special exercises to strengthen the Achilles, warm-up before physical activity, the correct selection of running shoes with the help of special tests of the anatomical structure of your feet, with the help of professionals in this field, if necessary – production of orthopedic, sports insoles.

By the way, to protect against injuries, it is largely possible to use special creams that warm up the muscles before exercise, restore them after, and help avoid chafing. A detailed article about such creams and how to use them.

Heel/Toe Run

One of the main and often discussed questions about running technique for beginners and experienced runners. In fact, there is no single and only correct answer to the question “what is better?”, confirmed by qualitative and quantitative studies.

Careful analysis of video recordings of the technique of the best marathon runners during their performances at the most important competitions does not lead to unequivocal conclusions that it is better “from the toe” or “from the heel”. The fact is that each runner, due to certain, personal physiological and anatomical features, develops his own personal technique for setting the foot – it is convenient for someone to run this way, for someone – that way. Short distances are run “from the toe” – the heel simply does not have time to touch the surface, the vast majority of runners overcome long distances “from the heel” or placing their foot completely on the entire surface of the foot.

Water-electrolyte balance

Long-distance runners during training or competition (especially in hot weather) lose a fairly large amount of water, which the body releases in the form of sweat to cool the body. Along with sweat, the electrolytes necessary for movement and normal life activity are also lost – substances that are responsible for the transmission of nerve impulses and they also play an important role in the composition of the blood and human metabolism.

To compensate for the loss of water and electrolytes, to maintain balance, it is recommended to drink isotonic during and after jogging – special mixtures containing all those substances, the loss of which must be compensated during and after physical exertion. Isotonics dissolve either in clean, drinking water, or in special sports drinks, which also contain trace elements useful for the body.

We recommend you a detailed article about what “sports nutrition” is, why it is needed and why it allows you to qualitatively replenish the energy expended and increase productivity during training or during competitions.

All isotonics in Kant

All sports nutrition in Kant

Types of running training

What is running training for? In order to improve or maintain your physical form, or rather, its physiological, objective parameters, expressed in specific numbers: the maximum amount of oxygen consumed, the threshold for anaerobic metabolism, etc. Each type of training develops some specific quality: speed, endurance, etc. Experienced runners, when making plans for a period or for a specific event, always include all types of training in them – in this case, all body systems will develop harmoniously.

To plan your workouts, we recommend that you enlist the help of professional trainers who work under the wing of reputable running schools. Planning on your own is only good for very experienced runners.

1. Aerobic training. Long workouts

Foundation, a basic exercise that every runner should perform in the required amount if he plans to run long distances with good results and well-being.This type of training develops the most important quality – endurance – the ability to run for a long time, at the required speed.

In addition to the development of endurance and physiological changes, running in the aerobic zone contributes to the psychological adjustment, adaptation of the nervous system to a long and monotonous physical activity.

The intensity of aerobic training is calculated from the TANM, and most often it is 70-85% of this value, not more.

The lower limit (60 – 70%) is a low intensity zone for warm-up running and recovery after competitions or intense training blocks, the upper limit (70 – 85%) is a moderate intensity zone for maintaining and developing basic endurance. Fat metabolism is maximal here, in this zone they “lose weight”. Optimal cardiovascular regimen for untrained runners and those who are overweight.

Long workouts increase the number of blood capillaries in the muscles, increase the efficiency of the cardiovascular system. Depending on the preparation of the runner, the distance for a long run usually ranges from 10 to 50 km.

If you are a beginner and your heart rate starts to accelerate to large values ​​in this mode, even when jogging very slowly, go to a fast step, do not overstrain the cardiovascular and nervous system, training through the through the help will not give you anything, except for the loss of motivation . After a certain amount of hard training, you will see the results of your “walks” and you will be able to run longer and longer segments.

2. Tempo workouts. Running at a certain speed

Running workouts with uniform intensity, at a certain speed. Usually performed at values ​​below the TAN by 10%.

Such training is the main tool for achieving the goal I want to run … in such and such a time. The main feature of the “tempo” training is that you run at the same speed, at the same pace, which you then plan to use at responsible starts. Usually, not 100% tracing paper from the length and speed of the competition is used as training, but the pace and distance are slightly less than the original. Such training requires the runner to be determined to maintain the required pace for the maximum number of kilometers, while not going beyond the TAN.

The usefulness of tempo training lies in the fact that outside the competitive context you can clearly understand: are you ready or not for the time results that you plan, what is your physical condition, how do you feel under such a load? Tempo workouts are the necessary rehearsals before a real running “performance”.

3. Segments or intervals

The basis of such training is intermittent, alternating alternation of two different modes – fast running, at the limit of possible speed, at the limit of maximum heart rate, at the level of 95% TAN and further recovery in the form of very slow jogging with speed and pulse

The rate of assimilation by the body of ordinary food is also insufficient to compensate for the energy losses that occur during running.

That is why, based on the fact that:
A) Athletes need to eat during the races;
B) It is necessary that the beneficial substances contained in food are quickly delivered to the muscles;
C) It is necessary that the concentration of useful substances be high;
D) It is necessary that the process of eating is convenient and does not interfere with the run itself;
…and “energy gels” have been invented, which come in a huge variety of forms, convenience packages, and flavors.

There are several main types of gels that stand out from the entire range:

high caffeine gels. They are used most often on the last kilometers of hard distances, in order to cheer up a tired body;

gels with a high content of electrolytes – it is recommended to use these gels in hot weather, when the loss of electrolytes by the body is especially high;

All energy gels have a specific taste that may be unfamiliar to you, in addition, the reaction of your gastrointestinal tract to an unfamiliar product is also difficult to predict. Therefore, always, at responsible starts, use only proven, pre-tested nutrition during the training process.

Usually, runners are good at one brand of gels and use it for a long time. We recommend choosing from the following titles:


The main source of energy for runners. Complex carbohydrate, which consists of glucose molecules connected in a chain. After a meal, a large amount of glucose begins to enter the blood, if there is an excess of glucose, then the body packs it, as the excess in the form of glycogen in the liver and muscles. As soon as the glucose level in the body goes down, for example, during training or competition, the body breaks down the stored glycogen with the help of enzymes and thus the glucose level in the body remains normal, and the runner receives energy for his exploits.

The total glycogen store in an adult is 300-400 g.


A frequent type of training when there is an opportunity to practice outdoors. Up and down runs are similar in their load structure to intervals, but in this type of training, a much larger number of muscles are involved. Often hills are used as training exercises by those who participate in races outside the asphalt: trail runners, sky runners, etc.

Detailed articles about trail running equipment:

Pulse. Heart rate zones

If you train without using pulse zones, without controlling your heart rate – it's the same as navigating in the forest at night without a compass or navigator and blindfolded – aimlessly and with unpredictable results.

A person is arranged in such a way that with a different level of activity, one factor trains and develops.Moreover, the development of this factor is directly related to such an objective indicator as the heart rate (heart rate). With some ranges – zones – heart rate indicators, endurance is trained, with others – physical strength, etc. Accordingly, in order to build a working training plan, where there will be workouts for endurance and physical strength, etc. You just need to find out – in what zones, what digital performance of the pulse do you have?

How to determine pulse zones?

There are many technologies for the “layout” of pulse zones. The most accurate and objective – the one that is obtained as a result of medical testing, with the measurement of physiological parameters by analyzing the level of oxygen in the blood. Typically, such a test is performed using a bicycle ergometer, on a treadmill or using special exercises that require maximum physical stress.

How many pulse zones are all and what, in what kind of heart is he trained?

There are five “pulse” zones in total and they are displayed from the importance of heart rate at rest (lovers have this figure in the region of 70 beats, professionals can fall up to 30 beats) – to the maximum value – both amateurs and professionals have this figure in the region of 190 – 200 – 210 beats – the heart cannot download blood to physiological reasons faster.

The difference between the boundaries of the subsequent and previous pulse zone is usually 10 – 15%.

1. The zone of very low intensity

It is used as a warm -up before high loads and for recovery after competitions and heavy training.

50-60% of the maximum heart rate. General physical endurance is trained. Light and comfortable training. This zone is best suited for those who have just begun to train, or has a very low level of physical fitness.

2. Fitness zone

60-70% of the Ministry of Emergency Situations. The zone of moderate intensity for maintaining and developing basic endurance. Energy is produced mainly with aerobic means. Fatty metabolism training – during training in this zone, fat mobilization is ensured, you begin to lose weight. The optimal training area for untrained runners and people with high weight. In this zone, the quality of muscle fibers and capillaries density increases, the cardiovascular system develops. Training in the second zone is an integral part of the program of classes of each runner.

3. Aerobic zone

The zone of high intensity inside the range of aerobic-anaerobic transition for the development of basic endurance and increased aerobic characteristics.

70-80% of the Ministry of Emergency Situations. The optimal zone for endurance training. The development of a network of small capillaries in the muscles that provide oxygen delivery is stimulated. The number and size of blood vessels increases, the volume of the lungs increases, the functional state of the respiratory system improves, the size and strength of the heart increases.When training in this pulse zone, acidification of the blood with lactate begins.

4. Anaerobic zone

80-90% of MHR. The submaximal intensity zone is just above the aerobic-anaerobic transition range for rapid metabolization of reserves and training of specific competitive endurance. The source of energy for movement is almost entirely from carbohydrates, fats are practically not burned.

Training in this zone is necessary for the development of speed endurance – when you can run for a long time and at high speed at an almost maximum heart rate.

The level of lactate begins to rise sharply, the level of PANO is reached precisely in this zone. Training in this zone is needed to improve the indicator of maximum oxygen consumption, push back the level of TAN, to increase the level of endurance.

5. Maximum zone

90-100% of MHR. The zone of maximum intensity is above the aerobic-anaerobic transition range. It will turn out to be no more than 2-5 minutes in this zone, because. the concentration of lactate in the blood will go off scale. Energy supply is mainly due to creatine phosphate and muscle glycogen.

Training in this zone makes you feel – what does it mean to run for all the money, your heart rate approaches 100% of the MHR, the zone of the maximum possible load for you begins. The body works at the limit of its capabilities, quickly consuming all available reserves, the respiratory system and the cardiovascular system work with the highest possible efficiency.

Training in the maximum zone is carried out by professional athletes in the pre-competitive period. For amateurs who want to lose weight or simply improve their health, exposing themselves to such extreme loads is not only not useful, but also dangerous.

How can I make sure I'm training in my planned heart rate zone?

To do this, there are means of objective control – heart rate monitors that read the value of your heart rate and transmit them either to special watches, sports watches, or to fitness applications installed on your smartphones via bluetoooth – a communication channel. In the watch and apps on your smartphone, all your activity data is visualized using numbers and graphs.

Cadence (running rhythm, cadence)

The number of steps a runner takes per minute of running. With too high cadence values, you need to think about technique – you mince, put your feet on the ground very often. With low cadence, you take too many steps between touches, thereby forcing your musculoskeletal system to work with an unnecessary load. The ideal cadence, which reduces the risk of injury while running, is the number 180, it was deduced by the American researcher Jack Daniels as a result of observations of professional athletes.

Kinesio tape

Special plasters, developed by chiropractor Kenzo Kase from Japan, which are glued along the lines of the muscles and ligaments in order to relieve stress from the muscles after injuries or before intense work.Tipes are made of natural cotton and an acrylic base covered with an adhesive gel.

Compression golfs and clothes

Clothing and socks, with a high content of elastic threads. The feet are tightly covered, the muscles and veins of the legs are designed to keep in good shape while running. Thanks to the fit of the foot, they are reliably protected from gratitude by shoes.


Made of elastic fabrics of different lengths (from completely closing the ankles – to shorts) trousers. They are worn during windy weather, when the ambient temperature is significantly lower than the level of comfort, during trail races, to protect the skin of the legs and knees from cuts on tall grass and long races to avoid gratitude.

Titites are of different lengths – depending on the type of races: for trails – longer, for urban races on asphalt – shorter ones.

Maximum oxygen consumption (MPC)

One of the objective indicators of the level of the physical form of a person.

The IPC is the largest amount of oxygen that a person can consume within 1 minute. The more a person has a cardiovascular system, the better the physical form, the more oxygen-the main source of energy for movement, it can consume. In a healthy person who is not involved in sports, the IPC is 3200 – 3500 ml / min, in trained runners this indicator is above 5000 ml / min. Determination of the MPC is made using special equipment on a bicycle ergometer or treadmill.


From the English Major – main. The most prestigious and most popular annual “asphalt” marathons, where there are access to ordinary lovers. Since 2006, such marathons have united in a special series – World Marathon Majors. Currently, Meigers are held in Boston, London, Berlin, Chicago and New York. Since 2013, the Tokyo marathon joined the series.

The winner of the series is awarded a cash prize of $ 500,000.

These races are considered special due to many years of history and the scale of the implementation. Almost all marathoners dream of running Meijor, but it is very difficult to do this because of the high temporary qualifications and a large number of people from all over the world.

Muscles – engines and muscles – stabilizers

For running (as well as for any other vertical movement), a person uses two muscle groups:

A) Stabilizers that are responsible for the equilibrium position of the parts of our body and fixing parts of the skeleton relative to each other

B) muscles – “engines” that are responsible for the main power work to move our body in space and the movement of parts of the human skeleton regarding each other.

In the process of training, it is important to pay attention to both muscle groups – for this there are complexes of special running exercises (SBU) and OFP – general physical training.

Orthopedic insoles

The structure of the feet for all runners is different, in order to compensate for these features, in order to remove the difference between unique legs and serial sneakers, to reduce trauma when running and special orthopedic insoles are made. They are very shown to those who have flat feet, hypo-or hyper-profile. Insoles are made in special centers, professional masters, using special equipment.


The method of setting the foot on the surface when walking or running is one of the key points with the correct choice of running sneakers. The wrong choice, without taking into account the deviation from the normal state, can lead to problems with the knees or damage to the Achilles tendon.

Pronation is a way that our foot lands, rolls and repels from the surface on which we walk or run.

In the contact of the foot with the surface of the earth, its vault, given to us by nature in the form of a curved springs, becomes more flat, thereby softening the shock load.

Neutral pronation – when the foot is placed absolutely flat on the surface, which ensures the optimal distribution of the load, both when landing after a step and with push.


With hyperopronation, the foot bends inside, and joints and ankle follow it. Due to the too strong deflection of the foot (actual flooding it inside), excess pressure occurs on the inner part of the foot and the Achilles tendon.

Sneakers designed to solve the problem of hyperpronation belong to the class of “stabilizing” and usually have a characteristic “Motion Control”. Unlike “neutral” models, they are equipped with an enhanced intermediate sole (supervisor) and special, pronounced side profiles of the soles of the sneakers, which gives more resistance to flooding inside, compensates the blockage and returns the foot to a neutral position.


With hypopronation, the foot, on the contrary, is flooded in the outside and thus difficult a natural depreciation of the foot due to its insufficient deflection. Hypopronation is a much more rare phenomenon than hyperpronation, which is why there are very few models of sneakers for hypoponers in the market. If you are a runner with pronounced hypopronsion, and you would like to increase the stability of your shoes, try using special orthopedic insoles designed to solve this problem.

Body mass index

The value that allows you to assess the correspondence of the body's body weight and its growth and indirectly determine whether the mass is insufficient, normal or excessive. The runners have a direct dependence of the efficiency of running on the body mass index. One of the possible calculated formulas: i = m/h2, where H2 is a square in a square, m is weight.

Marathon Wall

The state of extreme emotional and physical exhaustion in the runner, a complete decline in motivation, the absence of any desire to run at least 50 meters.The causes of the wall are an extremely high level of lactate and an extremely low blood sugar. How to avoid the walls?:

A) Run the “pulse” distance, track its value with a sports watch or an application in a smartphone. Even if you are a very high level runner, remember that climbing in the 4th, and even more so, the 5th “pulse” zone should be very short-term and you need to return to lower pulse values ​​as soon as possible.

B) Be sure to drink and eat before and during long distances. 40 minutes-1 gel, every 30 minutes-3-4 sips of a drink with a diluted isotonic from a flask or regular drinking at power points-all this will allow you to maintain blood sugar at a level that will allow your body to function normally.

Road (in sneakers)

Roof (drop) – the value in mm – how much the heel is higher than the sock in the sneaker. The value of the difference is selected depending on the technique of setting the foot during running. When running “on the heel”, the difference should be larger (8-10 mm) to compensate for the rigid landing on the ankle joint, a high drop provides a smooth rifle from the heel to the toe. When running “on the toe” or in the middle of the foot, the difference can be minimal, the usual value is 6-8 mm.


The state of the body (physical, emotional) that arises in both beginners and pro, when the volume and intensity of training exceeds the restoration abilities of the body. The main features: increasing the heart rate, which does not decrease even for a long time after the end of the training or competition, mood swings, depressive state, irritability, fatigue even from minor physical exercises.

Flat feet

One of the defects of the foot, in which the set of the foot is weakened or has a form in which the leg cannot fully act as a shock absorber.

Distinguish between longitudinal and transverse flat feet with different degrees. This defect is acquired or congenital, it is detected during special tests and must be taken into account when selecting sneakers.


A heart rate monitor is a measuring device that records heart rate. It is also called a heart rate monitor (Heart Rate Monitor). This device, which allows you to determine the pulse during physical activity and show – how your heart beats intensively.

Mandatory element (well, only if you are not Eliud Kipchoga) for any runner for long distances. The Pulsometer sensor can be mounted in sports hours (optical sensor) or capture electromagnetic impulses, being a separate element. Data from the sensor is transmitted to sports hours or to a special application on a smartphone via a Bluetooth radio channel.

Suunto 2021-22 Smart Heart Rate Belt Pulsometer


The command sport, very close in format for sports orientation.The main task is to dial the maximum number of points for a certain period of time (classically 24 hours, but it happens and 6, 8, 10, 12 hours), finding control points on the ground using orientation skills. Over every minute of delay, one penalty point is removed from the control time, and after 30 minutes of late, the result of the team will be canceled. Rohean provides not only a high readiness to quickly run and read a topographic map, but also think tactically, choosing the best trajectory from one KP to another, which will allow you to go through the entire distance faster.

Sports drinks

Sports drinks are special, containing carbohydrates (4-8 g per 100 ml), harmless solutions of salts and minerals that activate the metabolism, increase endurance, and also restore salt balance in the body, which is certainly disturbed in the process of prolonged physical activity, which can Call a cramp and weakness in the muscles. It is advisable not to experiment with sports drinks on races, since your body’s reaction to a new, unusual product can disable the gastrointestinal tract. Experienced runners test new sports drinks only in training, and only proven products are used in competitions.

Examples of ready -made sports drinks: Powerade, Catorade, Aqua Minerale Active.

At the same time, it is worth noting that the concentration of salts and minerals in such drinks is low, and we recommend dissolving the additional volumes of the necessary useful additives in the form of isotonics in them.

Certified track

The route, the parameters of which were checked by independent specialists of the International Association of Athletics federations (IAAF) and the Association of International Marathons and Roads (AIMS), when it comes to checking marathon distances. After the official audit, if everything is fine and the route meets the necessary parameters, the organizers are issued the corresponding certificate (usually for 5 years).

Starting zone

The place where the start is given in the competition and where the participants are being completed (if the track has a start and finish in one place). Most often, the starting zone consists of a starting corridor, with a bandwidth, so that random people, “Start-finish” arches, hours indicating the beginning of the time of the race, chip system, which considers the time you pass through the distance, do not get into it.

The pace of running

One of the key parameters on the run, along with the pulse. The pace is considered like this – how many minutes the runner should spend on the passage of one km of distance. Let's say Eliud Kipchoga, during the establishment of a world record on the Berlin marathon in 2018 (2: 01: 39), ran a distance with an average pace of 2: 53 minutes per 1 km. For comparison, the average pace of amateur runner at the Moscow marathon, in order to show him time faster than 4 hours, should be at least 5: 30 minutes per 1 km.Competent planning of the training process allows you to maintain the necessary pace during the competition, which leads to the desired finish time.

Trail, traillance

Running on the road, on natural relief – paths, mountains, forests. The main difference between the trailranning and the cross, for which the tracks are also laid outside the “asphalt” – the presence of a certain, necessary difference in heights and distance lengths – trails are rarely shorter than 10 km, and crosses are the other way around.

In contrast to the “asphalt” run, the trail is considered a more universal training tool, because When passing the distance, more muscles of the body are involved – both “engines” and “stabilizers”.

Because, and training and competitions in the trail are held on a natural relief with a sufficiently uneven surface, to the shoes used by runners, certain requirements are imposed to prevent injuries of the ankle: it should fix the foot tightly, have a strong (but light) design, expressed A tread of the sole, which will not slip when moving along slippery, steep slopes and dirt.


Most often, the so -called amateur races without a goal to show a high competitive time. The runners take part in such races primarily with the aim of enjoy- fun and blowing up, and not get ahead of rivals. Fan rains are most often similar to carnivals, participants showered each other with paints, doused with water. Traditionally, such races are carried out at distances that usually do not exceed 5-7 kilometers. The classic fan-yran is a “colorful race”, which is held annually in Moscow.


The time that is detected along the “chips” of the runner when it crosses a special device first at the start, and then at the finish line. Chip-Time is also called pure time, because Only the time that Begun really spent on the race track is taken into account. Chip-Time differs from Gan Taima (time from the start of the race to your finish) for the time that it took you to get to the crowd of runners to the starting strip.

After finishing training or finish in competitions, the process of combustion of calories does not stop. Fat deposits go into consumption even more intensively than before training, since the body needs to recover after exhausting work. This process of restoration of the body can be called “burning calories”, which is largely the restoration of several physiological indicators to the level that was before the start of training.

An increase in energy consumption occurs due to excessive oxygen consumption after load (it is also oxygen duty), which in English sounds like Excess Post-Exercise Oxygen Consumption (EPOC).

EPOC – the degree of increased metabolism (burning of calories and fat) of the body after training – how much the effect of training lasts after its end.

If you constantly monitor the EPOC indicators during running, you can catch the value in which further rest after training will be more effective.

A gas analyzer test

Treadmill Test is one of the most objective tests that give a complete picture of all the key physiological parameters of the runner's body during physical activity. During the test, an electrocardiogram is removed under the load, blood pressure is measured, oxygen consumption is determined using a gas analyzer, blood is taken to measure the concentration of lactate.

Under the supervision of a functional diagnosis, a person goes / runs along a treadmill (a testist-simula) with a given speed, and at this time the devices monitor the work of his body and read data, which are then deciphered by specialists. The test is good because it shows the real state of the runner “in numbers”, reveals hidden pathologies of the heart, which are not manifested in ordinary life.

Based on the results of the thread test, runners receive data on the state of their body, which can be compared with the data obtained some time after training cycles and see whether there is progress or not.

Knowledge of running terminology is good that they show that running is not the simplest lesson, as it seems, but at the same time, having dealt with the basic concepts, you can build your own training system and competitions that will be conscious and will be able to lead you from One sports achievement is to another.